Jeffrey Carmichael - Chief Executive Officer - Promontory Financial Group Australasia, LLP

Dr. Carmichael is the Chief Executive Officer of Promontory Financial Group Australasia (PFGA), and is an expert on regulatory relations, risk management, strategy & governance, regulatory structure, design and effectiveness. In the past, he held the position of an inaugural Chairman of the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) with responsibility for regulating and supervising banks, insurance companies and pension funds. He has previously held senior positions held with the Reserve Bank of Australia, Queensland Office of Financial Supervision and the Australian Financial Institutions Commission. A PhD in economics from Princeton University, Dr. Carmichael has served on a number of Government and private sector boards and has also published over 40 professional articles in a number of the world's top economics and finance journals, including the American Economic Review and Journal of Finance.

Douglas E. Harris - Managing Director - Promontory Financial Group, L.L.C (New York Office)

Douglas E. Harris is a Managing Director in the New York office of Promontory Financial Group, L.L.C., and specializes in advising banks, hedge funds, futures commission merchants, clearinghouses, exchanges and other types of financial institutions on regulatory, compliance, risk management, derivatives and capital markets issues. Mr. Harris also a member of the Bar Association of the City of New York; the New York State Bar Association (Structured Products and Derivatives Law Committee); the American Bar Association (Derivatives & Futures Law Committee); the Law & Compliance Division of the Futures Industry Association; and the Financial Markets Association. In the past, Mr. Harris has held senior positions at BrokerTec Futures Exchange, L.L.C & BrokerTec Clearing Company, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (USA), JPMorgan Chase and National Futures Association – a self-regulatory organization for the U.S. derivatives industry.

Mr. Mark Fajfar - Assistant General Counsel - Commodity Futures Trading Commission (USA)

Mr. Mark Fajfar is the Assistant General Counsel of Commodity Futures Trading Commission (USA) - an independent agency that regulates commodity futures and option markets in the United States. He specializes in contributing and development of rules and regulations on swap dealer registration and cross-border application of swap rules. Mr. Fajfar holds a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University Law Center (1992), and a Master’s degree in Foreign Service from Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. His keen interest is to gain knowledge about current swap market practices in emerging markets.

Mr. Jonathan Garber Katz - Former Secretary - U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Mr. Jonathan Garber Katz was the Secretary of the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for twenty years. In this position, Mr. Katz coordinated and managed the Commission’s regulatory and enforcement programs; advising the Commissioners and the staff of the SEC on policy, procedures and best practices. In 1995, Mr. Katz received the Distinguished Service Award, a Commission’s highest honor. Mr. Katz has also served as an advisor to international organizations and foreign governments on the development and regulation of capital markets in developing countries. Since his retirement, Mr. Katz has served as a consultant on SEC regulatory and also worked with foreign governments and capital markets in Mexico, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Russia, Turkey, South Africa, the Philippines, Syria, Chile, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Brazil, China and Lebanon. A holder of Juris Doctor from University of Pittsburgh School of Law, Mr. Katz has written several articles on capital market regulation and is currently serving as the President of the Association of SEC Alumni.

Mr. George Handjinicolaou - Deputy Chief Executive Officer - International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc (USA)

Mr. George Handjinicolaou is the Deputy Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc – an association that works towards making the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets safe and efficient by reducing counterparty credit risk, increasing transparency, and improving the industry’s operational infrastructure. Before joining ISDA in 2007, Mr. Handjinicolaou founded Etolian Capital, a market-neutral hedge fund specializing in credit and capital structure arbitrage. A holder of Master’s degree and a PhD from New York University, Mr. Handjinicolaou has published several articles and has professionally engaged with The World Bank, International Finance Corporation, T-BANK and held the position of a Vice Chairman at the Greek Capital Markets Commission. Over the years, Mr. Handjinicolaou has served on several Boards - ISDA and Brokertek, Polytechnic University, and the International Association of Financial Engineers (IAFE).

Mr. Garth Greubel - Head of Portfolio Management - Eskom Treasury

Mr. Garth Greubel is currently the Head of Portfolio Management within the Eskom Treasury, and his responsibilities include the hedging of rates, currency and commodity exposures, and funding for the projects beyond South Africa’s borders. With a strong background in banking and financial services, prior to joining Eskom - Mr. Greubel was the Chief Executive of the Bond Exchange of South Africa and worked towards bringing new capital market products to market, as well as in developing new markets in both South Africa and other African countries. Mr. Greubel also worked as a partner at Nedcor and Deloitte and on the steering committee of the OECD Africa Debt Management and Bond Markets programme. Mr. Greubel holds a BA and an LLB from the University of Witwatersrand, and an LLM in Tax from the University of Johannesburg, and is active in developing the capacity of African capital markets.

Mr. Andrew Green - Global Head of Derivative Account Management – The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (DTCC)

Mr. Andrew Green is currently the Global Head of Derivative Account Management at the the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (DTCC). A derivatives professional with over 20 years’ experience across operations, finance, middle office and programme management. Mr. Green joined DTCC in September 2009 to lead the initial development of the Equity Derivatives Trade Repository in London. At the end of 2011, Mr. Green took on the new role at DTCC to create the Global Account Management team for DTCC’s derivatives and repository services. Prior to joining DTCC, Green had senior roles mainly within the Equity Derivatives business at RBS and Deutsche Bank.

Dr. Stefan Pankoke - Deputy Director - Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin)

Dr. Stefan Pankoke is the Deputy Director of Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), and has extensive knowledge on cross border cooperation and enforcement, market intermediaries’ regulation, and credit rating agencies. Following the adoption of G20 OTC derivatives reform agenda in 2009, Dr. Pankoke has contributed to the OTC Derivatives Working Group of the Financial Stability Board, the Regulatory Oversight Committee of the Global Legal Entity Identifier System, the OTC Derivatives Task Force; and International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO). He also engaged with the committees in charge of derivatives regulation at the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA). A holder of law degrees from the University of Tübingen (Germany) and the University of Aix-Marseille (France); and a PhD (summa cum laude) from the University of Tübingen, Dr. Pankoke regularly speaks at international conferences and has published on a wide range of topics including capital markets regulation, antitrust and civil law.

Mr. Stephen Linnell - Chief Operating Officer for Global Markets - Rand Merchant Bank

Mr. Stephen Linnell is currently the Chief Operating Officer (COO) for Global Markets at Rand Merchant Bank. Priot to being Rand, Mr. Linnell was the COO of its Global Equity and Prime Services businesses of Barclays Africa, as well as concurrently heading-up the firm’s Futures offering. Mr Linnell was also on the Board of the Safex Clearing Company (the JSE’s Derivatives Clearing House) and participated number of industry advisory boards, including:

  • STRATE’s Board of Directors (Absa Bank Representative)
  • BASA’s Investment Banking, Taxation, Financial Markets Bill, and OTC Derivatives Committee
  • The JSE’s Risk Advisory Committee, Equity Market Business Model Committee, and Clearing & Settlement Committee
  • PASA’s Payment Clearing House Committee (Vice Chairman)

Mr. Linnell has 10 years of experience in the industry and started his career as a Manager at Accenture in their Capital Markets and Strategy service line.

Ms. Uzma Wahhab - Member of the Financial Stability Board (FSB) Secretariat

Ms. Uzma Wahhab is currently a Member of the Financial Stability Board (FSB) Secretariat, supporting work on OTC derivatives. Prior to the joining the FSB, Ms. Wahhab was a Senior Special Counsel in the Office of the General Counsel at the US. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). As part of the General Counsel’s Legal Policy group for nine years, Ms. Wahhab advised on international policy, trading and markets regulation and enforcement. Immediately before joining the FSB in 2012, Ms. Wahhab worked with the SEC’s Office of International Affairs and Division of Trading and Markets on international issues related to the implementation of OTC derivatives regulation (Titles VII and VIII of the Dodd-Frank Act).

Ms. Leila Fourie - Director of Post-Trade Services – Johannesburg Stock Exchange

Ms. Fourie is the director Post-Trade Services at the JSE, responsible for clearing and settlement of equities, and the clearing house for interest rate and derivatives markets, quantitative analytics, risk, Indices, JSE statistics, and corporate actions. Ms. Fourie is also a board member of Strate and SAFCOM. Prior to JSE, Ms. Fourie worked with Standard Bank as the Managing Director of the Card Division, overseeing R21 billion in assets and R700 million in headline earnings. Ms. Fourie was also responsible for credit analytics and portfolio reporting at Standard's Corporate and Investment Bank. In this role, Ms. Fourie developed deep specialist skills in credit model development and validation, margin management, capital management, and stress testing. During this time, Ms. Fourie also managed the implementation of Basle II with the SARB, FSA and Hong Kong Monetary Authority. A holder of Master’s degree in Economics, Ms. Fourie was involved in various projects at the exchange, including the introduction of the FTSE Africa Index Series, the implementation of the equities trading system via the London Stock Exchange and the development of an integrated clearing. Ms. Fourie is married with two children.

Mr Norman Müller - Head - Capital Markets Department of the Financial Services Board of South Africa (FSB)

Mr Norman Müller is currently the Head of Capital Markets Department of Financial Services Board of South Africa (FSB) which is responsible for the administration of the Financial Markets Act, No 19 of 2012. His main responsibilities include the supervision of the JSE Limited, the central securities depository (Strate Limited) (“Strate”) and the two clearing houses, namely Strate and SAFCOM. He represents the FSB in the board of directors of the JSE, Strate and SAFCOM and serves in a number of industry committees. Priot to FSB, Mr Müller was a lecturer in Business Economics at the University of Stellenbosch for nearly 10 years and holds a number of qualifications. Mr. Müller, within the South African Development Community, represents the FSB at the SADC Committee of Insurance, Securities and Non-banking Financial Authorities (“CISNA”) and International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO). Mr. Müller is married with two children.

Ms. Marilyn Ramplin – CEO - Ramplin Capital

Ms. Marilyn is the CEO of Ramplin Capital, a strategic international adviser to financial and investment institutions, including hedge funds, regulators and investment banks. Prior to Ramplin, she held the position of an Executive Director with JPMorgan (London). Ms. Ramplin holds several independent non-executive board positions and has developed a risk governance framework for financial institutions and is an internationally recognised specialist on credit counterparty risk and has worked with clients such as the Bank of International Settlements. She is also the founder of the global thought leadership UCITS for Hedge Fund and UCITS University over 10,000 members, shaping the European and global thinking around Newcits (alternative strategies in a UCITS framework). She has also contributed towards the risk management framework for UCITS and the AIFM Directive. Ms. Ramplin has a background as a hedge fund risk arbitrage trader for a multi-billion dollar hedge fund.

Stephen G Cecchetti - Head of Monetary and Economic Department - Bank of International Settlements (BIS)

Mr. Stephen Cecchetti was appointed Economic Adviser and Head of the Monetary and Economic Department of the BIS in July 2008. Prior to joining the BIS, Mr. Cecchetti was the Barbara and Richard M Rosenberg Professor of Global Finance at the Brandeis International Business School. Previously, he held various other positions, including Executive Vice President and Director of Research at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Professor of Economics at Ohio State University, and editor of the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking. Mr Cecchetti studied at MIT and the University of California at Berkeley, where he received his PhD in 1982.

Mr. Martin Joy - Senior Adviser of the International Strategy team - Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC)

Mr. Martin Joy is a Senior Adviser within the International Strategy team at the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC). He joined ASIC in 2010 and has worked on a range of policy issues with a principal focus on OTC derivatives and FSB/IOSCO topics. Mr. Joy is part of the team that supports ASIC Chairman, Mr. Greg Medcraft, in his role as Chair of the International Organisation of Securities Commission. Prior to joining ASIC, M. Joy was a commercial derivatives and structured finance lawyer for eight years, practising in Australia and New York. He holds Bachelor of Arts (First Class Honours) and Bachelor of Laws (First Class Honours) degrees from Monash University and a Masters of Law degree from the University of Melbourne. He is currently a PhD candidate with the Centre for Regulatory Studies at Monash University.

Phillip Atkinson - Global Head of Membership Sales and Relationship Management - LCH Clearnet Group

Mr. Phillip Atkinson is Global Head of Membership Sales and Relationship Management for SwapClear and ForexClear for LCH Clearnet Group. He has responsibility for the sales of the SwapClear & ForexClear service to new members. He also has responsibility for SwapClear international agenda working in new jurisdictions to introduce promote LCH.Clearnet/SwapClear. Mr. Atkinson started his career in trading, managing various treasury-trading functions including Short Term Rates, Forward FX and Emerging Markets desks and had risk and credit management responsibilities for those functions. In 1994, he joined Société Générale and held various roles including Chief Dealer and Director of E-Commerce Projects, where he managed the development and marketing of several Internet products, including trading, clearing and show case platforms. Mr. Atkinson set up his own financial markets consultancy in 2002 and was directly involved in the implementation of the SwapClear clearing system for a major European Bank. The consultancy also advised on FX Clearing, Prime Brokerage and Workflow implementations. Prior to joining LCH Clearnet Group, Mr. Atkinson had global responsibility for managing the Rates and Transaction services within the Fixed Income Division of Thomson Reuters.

Mr Michalis Sotiropoulos - Director for Government Relations, Europe for the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (DTCC)

Mr. Michalis Sotiropoulos is Director for Government Relations, Europe for the DTCC. Mr. Sotiropoulos joined DTCC in 2011 to head its Brussels office and is responsible for government relations. Mr. Sotiropoulos interacts on a daily basis with regulatory agencies and central banks, Members of the European Parliament, various EU policy makers and government officials, as well as industry stakeholders. Prior to joining DTCC, Mr. Sotiropoulos was a policy advisor for APCO Worldwide, a large public affairs consultancy in Brussels, providing corporate and government clients with strategic counsel in EU laws and advocacy planning. He is experienced in a wide number of industry sectors including financial services, energy, transport and trade. Prior to this, Mr. Sotiropoulos has worked for the Cabinet of the European Commissioner for Environment and for several political think tanks, leading projects related to EU policy-making. Mr. Sotiropoulos, holds a Bachelor’s degree in International and European Studies from Panteion University (Greece), and a Master’s degree in Globalisation and Development from the University of Warwick (UK) and a postgraduate diploma in Advanced Negotiation Techniques from the Institute of European Business Studies (Belgium).

Dr. Horst Freitag – German Ambassador to the Republic of South Africa

Dr. Horst Freitag is the Ambassador to the Republic of South Africa. Prior to being an Abassador, Dr. Freitag was a Visiting Fellow at the Brooking’s Institution in Washington D.C. He also held the position of Director with the Defense and Security Policy Division, Special Task Force Iraq, and Director General Near and Middle East Affairs in Berlin. A graduate of Bonn University, and a holder of PhD from the University of Passau, Dr. Freitag passed the bar exam in Düsseldorf. Dr. Freitag also held other government positions during the period of 1989 to 1997, such as the Chief of Staff of the Defense Security Policy Division, Minister of State, in Bonn; Deputy Spokesman of German Foreign Office in Bonn; Political Counsellor for the German Embassy in Washington.

Mr. Gareth Buchner - Counterparty Credit Risk Management - Rand Merchant Bank

Mr. Gareth Buchner works in the Global Markets business unit of Rand Merchant Bank, a division of FirstRand Bank Ltd. Mr. Buchner has worked at the bank for 10 years and currently has responsibility for Counterparty Credit Risk management. Mr. Buchner holds a a post-graduate degree in Financial Economics.

Mr. Anthony Francis van Eden - Strategic Projects Director - Strate Limited.

Mr. Anthony Francis van Eden is currently Strategic Projects Director of Strate Limited, wherein his key projects are Strate’s Collateral Management Services and OTC Derivatives Trade Repository. Mr. Anthony Francis van Eden has been in the financial markets for the past 22 years, 14 of which were with Stanlib Asset Management as Chief Operating Officer and Financial Director. He worked with the industry working group for the dematerialisation of listed equities in South Africa from inception, which culminated in the formation of Strate Limited, where he served on the Board of directors for 4 years. Mr. Francis van Eden has been with Strate since 1st May, 2009, as COO and was responsible for the implementation of dematerialisation of Money Markets Securities. Mr. Francis van Eden is on the JSE Bond Advisory Committee, the SARB’s Financial Markets Liaison Group Money Market and Infrastructure Sub-committees and National Treasury’s Bond Development Committee. He currently serves as an Alternate Director on the Strate Board and a Trustee on the JSE Pension Fund.

Dr. Fabrizio López-Gallo - Manager of the Financial System Risk Analysis Division - Directorate General of Financial Stability at Bank of México

Dr. Fabrizio López-Gallo is Manager of the Financial System Risk Analysis Division in the Directorate General of Financial Stability at Bank of México. His main responsibilities involve: carrying out research and evaluation concerning the risks financial institutions and the financial system are exposed to, while reporting these to the Board of Governors; delivering micro and macroprudential regulatory and political recommendations regarding the Mexican financial system, as well as developing models and methodologies to successfully evaluate credit, market and systemic risks. Dr. López-Gallo is actively involved in the Research Task Force at the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and has also been a professor at the University Pompeu Fabra, Universidad Panamericana and ITAM, as well as a research fellow for the BIS. A Master’s graduate in Finance from Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology (ITAM), and a PhD in Economics from the University Pompeu Fabra, Dr. López-Gallo also works as a Consultant for the World Bank.

Mr. Chris Arnold – Partner, Derivatives & Structured Products Practice - Mayer Brown International LLP (London Ofice)

Mr. Chris Arnold is a Partner in the Derivatives & Structured Products practice of the London office of Mayer Brown International LLP. Dual-qualified in English and New York law, Mr. Arnold has experience across a broad range of OTC derivatives, capital markets and structured finance transactions. He has advised on numerous complex derivatives for leading market participants and has also been involved in many high-profile industry initiatives. Mr. Arnold is also a regular speaker on derivatives documentation and regulation and has spoken at numerous conferences in New York, London, Sydney, Singapore and Tokyo. Mr. Arnold’s practice covers derivatives, repos and structured securities linked to interest rates, foreign exchange, corporate and sovereign credit, equities, commodities, funds, insurance risks and strategic indices. He also advises institutions on legal risk management in relation to derivatives, including situations involving distressed transactions. Prior to joining Mayer Brown in 2010, Mr. Arnold worked in the London and New York offices of Allen & Overy LLP and spent six months on secondment to Goldman Sachs. Mr. Arnold holds a degree in Law from the University of Nottingham and is married with two daughters.

Mr. Bola Onadele - Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer of FMDQ OTC PLC, Nigeria

Mr. Bola Onadele, is the Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer of FMDQ OTC PLC – a Securities & Exchange Commission licensed over-the-counter market operator and by implication a self-regulatory organisation and securities exchange in Nigeria. Prior to this new engagement, Mr. Onadele was the President of FDHL, a financial markets and risk management consulting firm he founded in 2001. He was also the President of FDHL-MT, a financial services strategic transformation collaboration between his firm, FDHL, and Management Transformation (MT). Mr. Onadele in these roles participated in landmark financial markets transformation projects and initiatives, both for the regulators and the market operators. During his banking and consulting years, Mr. Onadele championed various financial markets infrastructure development initiatives in Nigeria. He also developed financial market training modules in Money Market, Treasury bills, FX, Bonds, Equity, Market Risk, Treasury Operations, Corporate Treasury Management and Asset-Liability Management. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Financial Markets Dealers Association (FMDA) in Nigeria and consultant to financial service regulators in Nigeria & Ghana.

Ms. Anne Clayton – Head, Regulatory Strategy and Change - ABSA Corporate and Investment Bank

Ms. Anne Clayton is the head of Regulatory Strategy and Change for Absa Corporate and Investment Bank. During her career, which spans a period of almost 30 years, Ms. Clayton has held executive positions in stockbroking firms, asset managers and international investment banks. In addition, Ms. Clayton held a senior position in the Surveillance division of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). Ms. Clayton’s vast experience translates to a wide range of skills ranging from a depth of knowledge of financial markets to drafting rules, directives, policies and guidance. Ms. Clayton is also recognised by regulators and peers as an expert in financial market structures and the regulatory environment in South Africa and is consulted on proposed legislation and regulatory changes by the South African authorities.

Mr. Andrew Canter – Director and Chief Investment Officer - Futuregrowth Asset Management

Mr. Andrew Canter is the director and Chief Investment Officer of Futuregrowth Asset Management. Futuregrowth Asset Management is a leading responsible investor in South Africa, managing over R120 billion, of which about R15 billion is in dedicated development funds. Prior to FAM, Mr. Canter was the founding Board member of the SA affiliate of CFA Institute, he plays a role in advocacy efforts which promote industry ethics and best practice. Mr. Canter has also played an active role as a Board Member with other institutions such as National Urban Reconstruction and Housing Agency (NURCHA); Savings and Investments Association - South Africa (ASISA); Trans-Africa Concessions (Pty) Ltd (TRAC) and N3 Toll Concessions (Pty) Ltd (N3TC). He also held the position of a Chairman of South Africa Infrastructure Fund (SAIF) – a fund formed by institutional investors to make equity investments in the development of South Africa’s infrastructure – and National Urban Reconstruction and Housing Agency - the leading provider of loan guarantees for the development of low income housing in South Africa. Mr. Canter studied at Bryant University (USA) as well as Richmond College (London) and earlier worked with Rand Merchant Bank to help establish their asset management business, before joining Futuregrowth.

Rupert Thorne

Rupert Thorne is the deputy to the secretary general of the Financial Stability Board (FSB), where he helps in the FSB's work to coordinate international policy initiatives to strengthen the financial system and promote consistent implementation of those policies across sectors and across countries. His work crosses a wide range of initiatives including policies to address systemically important financial institutions, OTC derivative market reforms, the reduction of reliance on credit rating agencies, the FSB's peer reviews of its membership and its initiative to improve adherence to international cooperation and information exchange standards globally. Mr. Thorne has been at the FSB since July 2009, having previously been with its predecessor, the Financial Stability Forum, from 2005 to 2008. Before joining the FSB, he worked for the International Monetary Fund (IFM) for 11 years, in areas such as multilateral surveillance of advanced financial markets and debt management policy advice, including as a member of teams negotiating IMF programs in response to capital account crises in Turkey and Uruguay. Previously, he spent over a decade at the Bank of England, in operational areas such as money market operations, government debt issuance and foreign exchange reserves management, as well as the analysis of financial stability, international financial market surveillance and statistics. He has an M.A. in mathematics from Cambridge University.

Tomas Garbaravičius - Principal Financial Stability Expert - Directorate General Financial Stability - European Central Bank

Tomas Garbaravičius is a Principal Financial Stability Expert at the European Central Bank, and specialises in financial stability, hedge funds, banks and financial markets. He is heavily involved in the coordination and preparation of the semi-annual ECB Financial Stability Review and quarterly ECB analyses for the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB). He has also developed and manages the qualitative quarterly ECB survey on credit terms and conditions in euro-denominated securities financing and OTC derivatives markets (SESFOD), and is the ECB representative at the BCBS-IOSCO Working Group on Margin Requirements (WGMR) for non-centrally cleared OTC derivatives. In the past, he held senior positions at the Bank of Lithuania. Mr. Garbaravičius holds a PhD from Vilnius University and is a CFA charterholder.

Nhlanhla Musa Nene - Deputy Minister of Finance of the Republic of South Africa

Mr Nhlanhla Musa Nene is the Deputy Minister of Finance (since 2008) and a Member of Parliament (since 1999). He was a member of the Local Organising Committee (LOC) for the FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup and Chairperson of the Public Investment Corporation, the Chairperson of the Portfolio Committee on Finance until 4 November 2008, the Co-Chairperson of the Joint Budget Committee until August 2005. Before that he was the ANC Local Government Councillor and Caucus Chairperson, Chairperson of Kranskop Policing Forum, ANC Regional Secretary of Ukhahlamba Region and the Regional Administrative Manager for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, for 15 years. He holds an Advanced Diploma in Economic Policy from the University of the Western Cape.